StarMed clinical evidence

Published studies on the StarMed range of CPAP and NIV respiratory hoods. For more information on the full StarMed range, including information sheets, videos and enquiries, please visit

Exhaled Air Dispersion During Noninvasive Ventilation via Helmets and a Total Facemask

Hui DS, Chow BK, Lo T, Ng SS, Ko FW, Gin T, Chan MTV. Chest. 2015 May;147(5):1336-1343.

This study set out to determine the extent of exhaled air dispersion, which is linked to the rate of nosocomial infections, when employing NIV using a high-fidelity human patient simulator. Two different helmets and one face mask were put to the test, which included the Sea-Long Medical Systems helmet, the StarMed CaStar R helmet and a Koninklijke Philips total facemask. Exhaled air was evaluated in a negative pressure room with 12 air changes/h by two different helmets via a ventilator and a total facemask via a bilevel positive airway pressure device. Exhaled air was labelled by intrapulmonary smoke particles, illuminated by laser light sheet, and captured through a camera for data analysis. Results have demonstrated that during NIV via the Sea-Long Medical Systems helmet, exhaled air leaked through the neck seal reaching a radial distance of 150 to 230 mm. The patient simulator was programmed for mild lung injury and treated with inspiratory positive airway pressure from 12 to 20cm/H2O respectively and with expiratory pressure of 10cm/H2O. However, when delivering NIV via a StarMed CaStar R helmet with air cushion around the neck, air leakage was negligible. On the other hand, when administering NIV via a total face mask, air leaked through the exhalation port to a distance of 618 and 812 mm when inspiratory pressure was increased from 10 to 18 cm H2O, with the expiratory pressure at 5cm H2O. Therefore, using the helmet with a good seal around the neck represents the best option to prevent nosocomial infection during NIV for patients with respiratory infections.

Link to abstract.